Women Entrepreneurship and Innovations in India:
The word first appeared in the French dictionary entitled Dictionnaire Universel de Commerce compiled by Jacques des Bruslons and published in Cantillon considered the entrepreneur to be a risk taker who deliberately allocates resources to exploit opportunities in order to maximize the financial return.
Both Say and Cantillon belonged to French school of thought and known as the physiocrats.
This institution was introduced in after a period of so-called freedom of trade Gewerbefreiheit, introduced in in the German Reich. However, proof of competence was not required to start a business. While the loan from French of the word "entrepreneur" dates to thethe term "entrepreneurship" was coined around the s.
According to Schumpeter, an entrepreneur is willing and able to convert a new idea or invention into a successful innovation. The idea that entrepreneurship leads to economic growth is an interpretation of the residual in endogenous growth theory [ clarification needed ] and as such continues to be debated in academic economics.
An alternative description by Israel Kirzner suggests that the majority of innovations may be incremental improvements such as the replacement of paper with plastic in the construction of a drinking straw that require no special qualities.
For Schumpeter, entrepreneurship resulted in new industries and in new combinations of currently existing inputs. Schumpeter's initial example of this was the combination of a steam engine and then current wagon making technologies to produce the horseless carriage. In this case, the innovation i.
It did not immediately replace the horse-drawn carriage, but in time incremental improvements reduced the cost and improved the technology, leading to the modern auto industry.
Despite Schumpeter's early 20th-century contributions, the traditional microeconomic theory did not formally consider the entrepreneur in its theoretical frameworks instead of assuming that resources would find each other through a price system.
In this treatment, the entrepreneur was an implied but unspecified actor, consistent with the concept of the entrepreneur being the agent of x-efficiency.
For Schumpeter, the entrepreneur did not bear risk: Schumpeter believed that the equilibrium was imperfect. Schumpeter demonstrated that the changing environment continuously provides new information about the optimum allocation of resources to enhance profitability.
Some individuals acquire the new information before others and recombine the resources to gain an entrepreneurial profit. Schumpeter was of the opinion that entrepreneurs shift the production possibility curve to a higher level using innovations.
In the s, entrepreneurship has been extended from its origins in for-profit businesses to include social entrepreneurshipin which business goals are sought alongside social, environmental or humanitarian goals and even the concept of the political entrepreneur.
According to Paul Reynolds, founder of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor"by the time they reach their retirement years, half of all working men in the United States probably have a period of self-employment of one or more years; one in four may have engaged in self-employment for six or more years.
Participating in a new business creation is a common activity among U. Entrepreneurial activities differ substantially depending on the type of organization and creativity involved.
Entrepreneurship ranges in scale from solo, part-time projects to large-scale undertakings that involve a team and which may create many jobs.
Many "high value" entrepreneurial ventures seek venture capital or angel funding seed money in order to raise capital for building and expanding the business. Beginning inan annual " Global Entrepreneurship Week " event aimed at "exposing people to the benefits of entrepreneurship" and getting them to "participate in entrepreneurial-related activities" was launched.
While most entrepreneurial ventures start out as a small business, not all small businesses are entrepreneurial in the strict sense of the term.
Many small businesses are sole proprietor operations consisting solely of the owner—or they have a small number of employees—and many of these small businesses offer an existing product, process or service and they do not aim at growth.Nothing could be truer for the women entrepreneurs of today who are chartering unknown territories unabashedly and fearlessly.
Be it in ecommerce, education, investing, travel, fashion, retail. Apr 16, · Opinions expressed by Forbes Contributors are their own.
I write about management in its many forms. Share to facebook Share to twitter Share to linkedin Are women . To study the Current Scenario of women entrepreneurs in India. To study the problems and challenges faced by women entrepreneurs in India.
To study the initiatives taken by government for women entrepreneurs in India. IV. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The . Sep 07, · There is a substantial body of research supporting the notion that women are less likely to ask for more money, and the new research does not reverse this finding in any way.
Nothing could be truer for the women entrepreneurs of today who are chartering unknown territories unabashedly and fearlessly. Be it in ecommerce, education, investing, travel, fashion, retail. Regardless of your definition of success, there are, oddly enough, a great number of common characteristics that are shared by successful businesspeople.