After eight years in the shadow of Eisenhower and eight more years out of office, Richard Nixon brought to the presidency in rich experience as an observer of foreign affairs and shrewd notions about how… Presidency Nixon won the Republican nomination for president in by putting together a coalition that included Southern conservatives led by Sen. Strom Thurmond of South Carolina.
Richard Nixon Supreme Court candidatesList of federal judges appointed by Richard Nixonand Richard Nixon judicial appointment controversies Nixon made four successful appointments to the Supreme Court while in office, shifting the Court in a more conservative direction following the era of the liberal Warren Court.
Months after taking office, Nixon nominated federal appellate judge Warren E. Burger to succeed Warren, and the Senate quickly confirmed Burger. Another vacancy arose in after Fortas resigned from Court, partially due to pressure from Attorney General Mitchell and other Republicans who criticized him for accepting compensation from financier Louis Wolfson.
Harrold Carswellbut both were rejected by the Senate. Nixon then nominated federal appellate judge Harry Blackmunwho was confirmed by the Senate in One of Nixon's nominees, corporate attorney Lewis F. Nixon's other Supreme Court nominee, Assistant Attorney General William Rehnquistfaced significant resistance from liberal Senators, but he was ultimately confirmed.
Rehnquist would later succeed Burger as chief justice in In addition to his four Supreme Court appointments, Nixon appointed 46 judges to the United States Courts of Appealsand judges to the United States district courts.
Nixon Doctrine[ edit ] A map of the geopolitical situation in Upon taking office, Nixon pronounced the " Nixon Doctrine ," a general statement of foreign policy. Under the doctrine, the United States would not "undertake all the defense of the free nations. Rather than becoming directly involved in conflicts, the United States would provide military and economic aid to nations that were subject to insurgency or aggression, or that were otherwise vital to U.
The Johnson administration had agreed to suspend bombing in exchange for negotiations without preconditions, but this agreement never fully took force. According to Walter Isaacson, soon after taking office, Nixon had concluded that the Vietnam War could not be won and he was determined to end the war quickly.
To great public approval, he began phased troop withdrawals by the end ofsapping the strength of the domestic anti-war movement. When news of the leak first appeared, Nixon was inclined to do nothing, but Kissinger persuaded him to try to prevent their publication. In DecemberNixon ordered another massive bombing campaign, Operation Linebacker IIand domestic criticism of the operation convinced Nixon of the necessity to quickly reach a final agreement with North Vietnam.
The agreement implemented a cease fire and allowed for the withdrawal of remaining American troops; however, it did not require theNorth Vietnam Army regulars located in the South to withdraw. The United States and Soviet Union had been the clear leaders of their respective blocs of allies during the s, but the world became increasingly multipolar during the s.
The fracture in the so-called " Second World " of Communist states was more serious, as the split between the Soviet Union and China escalated into a border conflict in The United States and the Soviet Union continued to compete for worldwide influence, but tensions had eased considerably since the Cuban Missile Crisis.
In this shifting international context, Nixon and Kissinger sought to realign U. I had long believed that an indispensable element of any successful peace initiative in Vietnam was to enlist, if possible, the help of the Soviets and the Chinese.
At worst, Hanoi was bound to feel less confident if Washington was dealing with Moscow and Beijing. At best, if the two major Communist powers decided that they had bigger fish to fry, Hanoi would be pressured into negotiating a settlement we could accept.
Chinese leaders, meanwhile, were receptive to closer relations with the U. For the first two years of his presidency, Nixon and China each made subtle moves designed to lower tensions, including the removal of travel restrictions.
The expansion of the Vietnam War into Laos and Cambodia hindered, but did not derail, the move towards normalization of relations. Nixon made a point of shaking Zhou's hand, something which then-Secretary of State John Foster Dulles had refused to do in when the two met in Geneva.
The visit was carefully choreographed by both governments, and major events took place during prime time to reach the widest possible television audience in the U.
Americans received their first glimpse into Chinese life through the cameras which accompanied Pat Nixon, who toured the city of Beijing and visited communes, schools, factories, and hospitals.
Nixon recognized Taiwan as part of Chinawhile the Chinese agreed to pursue a peaceful settlement in the dispute with the ROC.
The United States and China increased trade relations and established unofficial embassies in each other's respective capitals.
Though some conservatives criticized his visit, Nixon's opening of relations with China was widely popular in the United States. Nixon also believed that expanding trade with the Soviet Union would help the U. For their part, the Soviets were motivated by a struggling economy and their ongoing struggle with China.
In his first press conference, he noted that the United States would accept nuclear parity, rather than superiority, with the Soviet Union. Kissinger conducted extensive backchannel talks with Soviet Ambassador Anatoly Dobrynin over arms control negotiations and potential Soviet assistance in negotiations with North Vietnam.
Seeking a bargaining chip in negotiations, Nixon funded development of MIRVswhich were not easily countered by existing anti-ballistic missile ABM systems. Arms control negotiations would thus center over ABM systems, MIRVs, and the various components of each respective country's nuclear arsenal.Richard Nixon, in full Richard Milhous Nixon, (born January 9, , Yorba Linda, California, U.S.—died April 22, , New York, New York), 37th president of the United States (–74), who, faced with almost certain impeachment for his role in the Watergate scandal, became the first American president to resign from office.
History: American term papers (paper ) on Watergate Scandal 2: Introduction Watergate was the name of the biggest political scandal in United States history. It included various illegal activities constructed to help President Richard Nixon win reelection in the presidential elections.
Watergate included burglary, wire tapping. President Richard Nixon's farewell speech to White House staff on the morning of August 9, , after his resignation was announced but a little before it became effective.
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Richard Nixon Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, – April 22, ) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from to , when he became the only president to resign the office.