The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of SARA added minimum cleanup requirements in Sectionand required that most cleanup agreements with polluters be entered in federal court as a consent decree subject to public comment section Owhich called for federal agencies to make achieving environmental justice a requirement by addressing low income populations and minority populations that have experienced disproportionate adverse health and environmental effects as a result of their programs, policies, and activities.
Chemical[ edit ] Analyzing water samples for pesticides The range of chemical parameters that have the potential to affect any ecosystem is very large and in all monitoring programmes it is necessary to target a suite of parameters based on local knowledge and past practice for an initial review.
The list can be expanded or reduced based on developing knowledge and the outcome of the initial surveys. Freshwater environments have been extensively studied for many years and there is a robust understanding of the interactions between chemistry and the environment across much of the world.
However, as new materials are developed and new pressures come to bear, revisions to monitoring programmes will be required. In the last 20 years acid rainsynthetic hormone analogues, halogenated hydrocarbonsgreenhouse gases and many others have required changes to monitoring strategies.
Biological[ edit ] In ecological monitoring, the monitoring strategy and effort is directed at the plants and animals in the environment under review and is specific to each individual study. However, in more generalised environmental monitoring, many animals act as robust indicators of the quality of the environment that they are experiencing or have experienced in the recent past.
The steep decline in salmonid fish populations was one of the early indications of the problem that later became known as acid rain. In recent years much more attention has been given to a more holistic approach in which the ecosystem health is assessed and used as the monitoring tool itself.
Radiological[ edit ] Radiation monitoring involves the measurement of radiation dose or radionuclide contamination for reasons related to the assessment or control of exposure to ionizing radiation or radioactive substances, and the interpretation of the results.
Also, sampling may be involved as a preliminary step to measurement of the content of radionuclides in environmental media. The methodological and technical details of the design and operation of monitoring programmes and systems for different radionuclides, environmental media and types of facility are given in IAEA Safety Guide RS—G Airborne surveys are also made by organizations like the Nuclear Emergency Support Team.
Microbiological[ edit ] Bacteria and viruses are the most commonly monitored groups of microbiological organisms and even these are only of great relevance where water in the aquatic environment is subsequently used as drinking water or where water contact recreation such as swimming or canoeing is practised.
Although pathogens are the primary focus of attention, the principal monitoring effort is almost always directed at much more common indicator species such as Escherichia coli supplemented by overall coliform bacteria counts. The rationale behind this monitoring strategy is that most human pathogens originate from other humans via the sewage stream.
Many sewage treatment plants have no sterilisation final stage and therefore discharge an effluent which, although having a clean appearance, still contains many millions of bacteria per litre, the majority of which are relatively harmless coliform bacteria.
Counting the number of harmless or less harmful sewage bacteria allows a judgement to be made about the probability of significant numbers of pathogenic bacteria or viruses being present.
Populations[ edit ] Monitoring strategies can produce misleading answers when relaying on counts of species or presence or absence of particular organisms if there is no regard to population size. Understanding the populations dynamics of an organism being monitored is critical.
Monitoring programmes[ edit ] All scientifically reliable environmental monitoring is performed in line with a published programme. The programme may include the overall objectives of the organisation, references to the specific strategies that helps deliver the objective and details of specific projects or tasks within those strategies.
However the key feature of any programme is the listing of what is being monitored and how that monitoring is to take place and the time-scale over which it should all happen.
Typically, and often as an appendix, a monitoring programme will provide a table of locations, dates and sampling methods that are proposed and which, if undertaken in full, will deliver the published monitoring programme. There are a number of commercial software packages which can assist with the implementation of the programme, monitor its progress and flag up inconsistencies or omissions but none of these can provide the key building block which is the programme itself.
Environmental monitoring data management systems[ edit ] Given the multiple types and increasing volumes and importance of monitoring data, commercial software Environmental Data Management Systems EDMS or E-MDMS are increasingly in common use by regulated industries.
They provide a means of managing all monitoring data in a single central place. Quality validation, compliance checking, verifying all data has been received, and sending alerts are generally automated. Typical interrogation functionality enables comparison of data sets both temporarily and spatially.
They will also generate regulatory and other reports.
Sampling methods[ edit ] There are a wide range of sampling methods which depend on the type of environment, the material being sampled and the subsequent analysis of the sample.
At its simplest a sample can be filling a clean bottle with river water and submitting it for conventional chemical analysis. At the more complex end, sample data may be produced by complex electronic sensing devices taking sub-samples over fixed or variable time periods.
Judgmental sampling[ edit ] In judgmental sampling, the selection of sampling units i. Judgmental sampling is distinguished from probability-based sampling in that inferences are based on professional judgment, not statistical scientific theory. Therefore, conclusions about the target population are limited and depend entirely on the validity and accuracy of professional judgment; probabilistic statements about parameters are not possible.
As described in subsequent chapters, expert judgment may also be used in conjunction with other sampling designs to produce effective sampling for defensible decisions.
For example, a simple random sample of a set of drums can be taken by numbering all the drums and randomly selecting numbers from that list or by sampling an area by using pairs of random coordinates. This method is easy to understand, and the equations for determining sample size are relatively straightforward.6 Tier 1 of the 3M Recommended Monitoring Plan focuses on the training and competency of EVS staff, similar to the CDC Options for Evaluating Environmental Cleaning Toolkit Level 1 program.
10 There are a number of variables that can affect how well a surface is cleaned. Environmental Monitoring looks at the end results of the Environmental Control program – the microbiological and particulate quality of the clean room. PDA Technical Report No. 13 Revised, (TR 13) Fundamentals of an Environmental Monitoring Program (single user digital version) Aseptic and Sterile Processing: Control, Compliance and Future Trends (Hardcover) by: Tim Sandle, Edward Tidswell Phase Appropriate GMP for Biological Processes: Pre-clinical to Commercial Production (Hardcover) by: Trevor Deeks.
Environmental Monitoring of Clean Rooms in RISK ASSESSMENT APPLIED TO CLEAN ROOM GRADE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR A carefully planned and executed environmental monitoring (EM) program provides increased assurance of sterility for aseptically produced products.
However. Environmental & Sustainability ensures that Mesa residents are provided with a clean, safe and environmentally-sound community. We promote sustainable development, the use of renewable resources and oversee that City operations comply with environmental regulations.
Superfund is a United States federal government program designed to fund the cleanup of sites contaminated with hazardous substances and pollutants.
Sites managed under this program are referred to as "Superfund" sites. It was established as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of (CERCLA). It authorizes federal natural resource agencies, .