Abstract Numerous studies indicate social support is essential for maintaining physical and psychological health. The harmful consequences of poor social support and the protective effects of good social support in mental illness have been well documented. Social support may moderate genetic and environmental vulnerabilities and confer resilience to stress, possibly via its effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical HPA system, the noradrenergic system, and central oxytocin pathways. There is a substantial need for additional research and development of specific interventions aiming to increase social support for psychiatrically ill and at-risk populations.
I find it easy to express feelings of affection toward members of my family. Most everyone around me is a stranger. I usually wait for a friend to call me up and invite me out before making plans to go anywhere. Most of my friends understand my motives and reasoning. I have at least one good friend of the same sex.
I am now involved in a romantic or marital relationship where both of us make a genuine effort at cooperation. I often become shy and retiring in the company of relatives. Some of my friends will stand by me in almost any difficulty.
My trying to have friends and to be liked seldom succeeds the way I would like it to.
I spend time talking individually with each member of my family. I find it difficult to tell anyone that I love him or her. I work well with others in a group. I am an important part of the emotional and physical well-being of my lover or spouse.
I have a lover or spouse who fulfils many of my emotional needs. Members of my family enjoy meeting my friends. I allow myself to become close to my friends. My relatives are generally too busy with their concerns to bother about my problems.
Few of my friends understand me the way I want to be understood. No one in the community where I live cares much about me. Members of my family give me the kind of support that I need.
A lot of my friendships ultimately turn out to be pretty disappointing. My romantic or marital partner gives me much support and encouragement. I am not very open with members of my family.
I often feel resentful about certain actions of my friends.
I am embarrassed about the way my family behaves. People who say they are in love with me are usually only trying to rationalize using me for their own purposes.
I have a good relationship with most members of my family. I get plenty of help and support from friends.
I seem to have little to say to members of my family. I really feel that I belong to a family. I have few friends with whom I can talk openly. My family is quite critical of me.
I have an active love life. I have few friends that I can depend on to fulfil their end of mutual commitments. Generally I feel that members of my family acknowledge my strengths and positive qualities. I have at least one real friend. Members of my family are relaxed and easy-going with each other.
I have moved around so much that I find it difficult to maintain lasting friendships. I tend to get along well with partners in romantic relationships. I find it difficult to invite a friend to do something with me. I have little contact with members of my family.
There are people in my community who understand my views and beliefs. I seldom get the emotional security I need from a romantic or sexual relationship.
My family usually values my opinion when a family decision is to be made. Most of my friends are genuinely concerned about my welfare.The Emotional Self-Disclosure Scale (ESDS) was developed to assess how willing people are to discuss specific emotions with different disclosure recipients.
Internal reliabilities (Cronbach's alpha) and test-retest were consistently high for each of the subscales on the ESDS for three specific.
The journal article describes the construction and preliminary validation of the Differential Loneliness Scale (DLS), is a measure that differs from previous loneliness scales- the scale asked respondents to evaluate the quality and the quantity of their interactions in specific kinds of relationships.
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Differential Loneliness Scale for Non-students Populations DESCRIPTION OF THE ASSESMENT The Differential Loneliness Scale for Non-student Populations (DLS; Schmidt & Sermat, ) is a self-report instrument used to assess levels of loneliness.
The unprecedented popularity of the social networking site Facebook raises a number of important questions regarding the impact it has on sociality. Guilt is a cognitive or an emotional experience that occurs when a person believes or realizes—accurately or not—that they have compromised their own standards of conduct or have violated a universal moral standard and bear significant responsibility for that violation.
Guilt is closely related to the concept of remorse.