Notes Abstract This essay surveys the development and current state of electronic literature, from the popularity of hypertext fiction in the 's to the present, focusing primarily on hypertext fiction, network fiction, interactive fiction, locative narratives, installation pieces, "codework," generative art and the Flash poem.
Background[ edit ] After giving up his post as a policeman in Burma to become a writer, Orwell moved to rooms in Portobello RoadLondon at the end of when he was In spring of he moved to Paris and lived at 6 Rue du Pot de Fer in the Latin Quarter a bohemian quarter with a cosmopolitan flavour.
American writers like Ernest Hemingway and F. Scott Fitzgerald had lived in the same area. Orwell's aunt Nellie Limouzin also lived in Paris and gave him social and, when necessary, financial support.
He led an active social life,  worked on his novels and had several articles published in avant-garde journals.
Orwell's Paris street, in the 5th arrondissement: The thief was probably not the young Italian described in Down and Out. In a Describing paris essay account, he said the theft was the work of a young trollop that he had picked up and brought back with him;  it has been submitted that "consideration for his parents' sensibilities would have required the suppression of this misadventure.
Whoever reduced Orwell to destitution did him a good turn; his final ten weeks in Paris sowed the seed of his first published book.
In August he sent a copy of "The Spike" to the Adelphi magazine in London, and it was accepted for publication. Orwell left Paris in December and returned to England, going straight home to his parents' house in Southwold.
Later he acted as a private tutor to a handicapped child there and also undertook further tramping expeditions, culminating in a stint working in the Kent hop fields in August and September After this adventure, he ended up in the Tooley Street kip, which he found so unpleasant that he wrote home for money and moved to more comfortable lodgings.
Completed in October it used only his Paris material. He offered it to Jonathan Cape in the summer of Cape rejected it in the autumn. Eliotthen an editorial director, also rejected it, stating, "We did find it of very great interest, but I regret to say that it does not appear to me possible as a publishing venture.
She had, with her husband, a London businessman named Francis, been for a number of years a visitor to Southwold in the summer and was on friendly terms with the Blairs. Fierz at this point took it to a literary agentLeonard Moorewho "recognised it as a 'natural' for the new house of Gollancz.
The author, after possibilities including "X," "P. Burton" an alias Orwell had used on tramping expeditions"Kenneth Miles" and "H.
Lewis Allways" had been considered,  was renamed "George Orwell. Down and Out in Paris and London was published on 9 January and received favourable reviews from, among others, C.
Sales were low, however, until Decemberwhen Penguin Books printed 55, copies for sale at sixpence. An Italian compositor forges room keys and steals his savings and his scant income vanishes when the English lessons he is giving stop.
He begins at first to sell some of his clothes, and then to pawn his remaining clothes, and then searches for work with a Russian waiter named Boris—work as a porter at Les Halleswork as an English teacher and restaurant work.
He recounts his two-day experience without any food and tells of meeting Russian "Communists" who, he later concludes, on their disappearance, must be mere swindlers. In Chapter XVI, he refers briefly to a murder committed "just beneath my window [while he was sleeping The thing that strikes me in looking back," he says, "is that I was in bed and asleep within three minutes of the murder [ The "patron" of the Auberge, "an ex-colonel of the Russian Army ," seems to have financial difficulties.
The narrator is not paid for ten days and is compelled to spend a night on a bench—"It was very uncomfortable—the arm of the seat cuts into your back—and much colder than I had expected"—rather than face his landlady over the outstanding rent.
At the restaurant, the narrator finds himself working "seventeen and a half hours" a day, "almost without a break," and looking back wistfully at his relatively leisured and orderly life at the Hotel X. Boris works even longer: We did not provide an adequate meal at less than twenty-five francs, and we were picturesque and artistic, which sent up our social standing.
There were the indecent pictures in the bar, and the Norman decorations—sham beams on the walls, electric lights done up as candlesticks, "peasant" pottery, even a mounting-block at the door—and the patron and the head waiter were Russian officers, and many of the customers titled Russian refugees.
In short, we were decidedly chic. Despite the filth and incompetence, the restaurant turns out to be a success. The narrative is interspersed with anecdotes recounted by some of the minor characters, such as Valenti, an Italian waiter at Hotel X, and Charlie, "one of the local curiosities," who is "a youth of family and education who had run away from home.
Not that there is any need to whine over him, for he is better off than many manual workersbut still, he is no freer than if he were bought and sold. His work is servile and without art; he is paid just enough to keep him alive; his only holiday is the sack [ He has] been trapped by a routine which makes thought impossible.THE FALSE ALLURE OF GROUP SELECTION.
Human beings live in groups, are affected by the fortunes of their groups, and sometimes make sacrifices that benefit their groups.
An introductory paragraph: On March 4, , John Smith was born to Anna Bradcock Smith and James Smith. Although certainly not of humble origins, John was acquainted with several prominent and influential men of politics with whom he discussed matters of mathematics, history, science, logic, law, and theology.
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Hume’s History was published between and in six volumes, beginning with the Stuart reigns, then working back to the Tudor and pre-Tudor epochs. A “New Edition, Corrected,” with the six volumes arranged in chronological order, appeared in under the title The History of England, From the Invasion of Julius Caesar to The Revolution .
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