Bus 320 final paper

The project was a hike-and-fly trip starting and ending in Ancona, Italy, crossing six European countries by travelling over km either by foot or paragliding. After shooting the first portraits and some hiking shots in the morning we started with the action shots. Taking photos of aerial-sports can be pretty hard if you are bound to the ground, especially if you want to include the scenery. But how does a photographer get airborne?

Bus 320 final paper

This issue is currently being examined from political, legal, socio-economic and humanitarian perspectives. The GICHD has undertaken research to provide a technical perspective on the destructive effects of selected explosive weapons to inform the international debate.

It seeks to provide clarity concerning the immediate physical effects and terminology used when discussing explosive weapons.

The project is guided by a group of experts dealing with weapons-related research and practitioners who address the implications of explosive weapons in humanitarian, policy, advocacy and legal fields. Whilst they carry out similar functions when used in populated areas as when they are employed elsewhere, the impact of their use may differ.

Indeed, the use of explosive weapons in populated areas has resulted in significant civilian deaths and injuries. In addition to the human cost, our case studies confirm substantial damage to essential infrastructure, homes and businesses.

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The research focuses on the inherent technical characteristics of the explosive weapon systems studied and their use in populated areas, examining both the methods and means of warfare.

It draws on five technical studies on explosive weapon systems, each of which assesses a common type of weapon system present in contemporary conflict zones. The weaponry covered was chosen on the basis of its ubiquity, notoriety, widespread stockpiling and use in populated areas.

The five weapon systems reviewed are mm multi-barrel rocket launchers, mm mortars, mm artillery guns, mm tank guns and the Mk 82 aircraft bomb. Effects of high explosive munitions in populated areas The Mk 82 aircraft bomb and mm rockets were found to have the widest area effect, although mortar and artillery projectiles were both responsible for single-munition explosions resulting in double-figure casualties.

Of the weapons covered in the study, tank munitions were often found to have a more limited lethal area than others. Whilst there are measures the user can take to adjust the effects of an explosive weapon in terms of the way it functions, many systems such as multi-barrel rocket launchers produce design-dependent effects intended to cause widespread destruction.

The effects of high explosive munitions within populated areas are influenced substantially by the presence of built structures and geographical features. Vehicles, housing, commercial property, factories, schools, hospitals, etc.

Buildings and vehicles contribute glass, rubble and other debris to the fragmentation originating from the weapon. The intuitive reflex among humans to seek shelter from an explosive weapon attack in buildings, vehicles, narrow streets, tunnels and similar enclosed or semi-enclosed spaces poses a lethal risk.

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Besides the reflecting blast waves in such spaces, the intensification of the weapon effects occurs due to the presence of a large number of people and structures within the effective range of a munition sas well as sources of secondary fragmentation. This results in a higher proportion of fatalities than would be likely in open spaces.

Humans are particularly vulnerable to blast overpressure and reflected blast waves. Surviving an explosive weapon attack with only surface bruises visible does not exclude ruptured eardrums, damaged lungs, internal bleeding, brain damage, infections and poisoning, and bone fracturing.

Depending on the layout of structures in a populated area and type of explosive weapon used in an attack, the probability of survival for a human may increase when away from the proximity of structures prone on the ground in a small depression or narrow ditch.

Inherent accuracy and precision of the studied weapon systems The accuracy and precision of the explosive weapon systems reviewed differ significantly, with tank guns and guided aircraft bombs being capable of use in an accurate and precise direct fire function when certain conditions are met.

Artillery gun and mortar systems are capable of a relatively high level of accuracy in an indirect fire function. However, due to the lower precision inherent in their design, projectiles are typically spread over a wide area which increases with the distance to the target.


Unguided artillery rockets are generally neither accurate nor precise. The level of accuracy and precision can be unpredictable and inconsistent with any of the weapon systems studied, owing to factors such as the level of operator training, alignment and sighting of the weapon, the quality control of munitions, weapon maintenance and the practical experience of the firer in using the weapon in varying terrain and weather conditions.

Most indirect fire systems used in conflicts of today are incapable of achieving the high degree of accuracy required to hit a small point target with the first round.

Bus 320 final paper

Characteristic use of explosive weapons and measures to control their impact There are measures the user can take to adjust the wide area effects of explosive weapons. Competent target analysis and approval procedure, positive target identification, evaluation of the immediate physical environment and the selection of the most accurate and precise weapon available to the user are key factors in reducing collateral harm.

As a general rule, armed forces should possess thorough knowledge of the dynamic effects of the munitions in their inventories and should be able to predict fairly accurately the extent of these effects in open terrain.

However, there is less awareness of the effects of use in built-up areas. This is especially the case with regard to the impact of rebounding blast and sources of secondary fragmentation and debris. Whilst some militaries have the capability to model these hazards, this is far from common and carries limitations in terms of its ability to mimic reality accurately.

Observing the devastation in the majority of cases studied where explosive weapons were used in populated areas, it appears that the critical assessments of the probable damage to civilians and civilian infrastructure prior to their use was inadequate or recommendations generated by such assessments were not followed, resulting in substantial collateral damage.

Still, the use and acquisition of munitions may be changing in response to the challenges of using EWIPA. These developments imply increasing awareness of the substantial area effects of explosive weapons and may also suggest a gradual change in military doctrine concerning good tactical use of air-launched weapons, testifying to attempts better to control and reduce wide area effects by providing more appropriate tools in support of targeting policies see Weapon-Target Matching p.

The key findings of the research project are presented in the section Findings and Conclusion and exemplified in Effects Analysis, with further evidence and examples in the five explosive weapon studies Annexes A to E.to 1,word section for your business model and strategic plan in which you add your strategies and tactics to implement and realize your objectives, measures, and targets.

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The FIFA World Cup was the 21st FIFA World Cup, an international football tournament contested by the men's national teams of the member associations of FIFA once every four years. It took place in Russia from 14 June to 15 July It was the first World Cup to be held in Eastern Europe, and the 11th time that it had been held in Europe.

At an estimated cost of over $ billion, it. The Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD) is an expert organisation working to reduce the impact of mines, cluster munitions and other explosive hazards in the world, in close partnership with states, the UN and other human security actors.

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