Mythical accounts Introduction of moral codes When did ethics begin and how did it originate? If one has in mind ethics proper—i.
When people approach a religious text or any large book from which they intend to derive ethical teachings, nearly without exception the person will pick up the book and pay very particular attention to all the morals they already agree with. The philosopher George Smith says that " Christian theologians have a strong tendency to read their own moral convictions into the ethics of Jesus.
Jesus is made to say what theologians think he should have said" A homophobe will pick up the Christian Bible and realise that homosexuality is an evil sin.
A misogynist will pick up the Bible or Qur'an and realise that after all this time he's right: Women are inferior, and he can quote the Bible or Qur'an to prove it. A fluffy liberal will read it and find all the hippy love-thy-neighbour bits and therefore will be able to prove that all those homophobes and misogynists have it wrong.
In arguing against extremism, Neil J. Kressel points out that "everyone picks and chooses, at least a little.
Long texts that dance with moral issues suffer from the problem that some morals in one place step on the toes of other morals in other parts. The debates over which verses have precedence over others is a major symptom of this issue.
In addition because of the volume of text and its frequent obscurity and complexity, there is plenty of scope for the imagination, and for personal bias, to find a way to interpret lines in a way that beat to the drum of the reader.
Because of the kaleidoscope of different plotlines and levels of possible interpretation, one's subconscious and imagination is given accidental freedom to invent all kinds of morals.
Most stories in holy books are about personalities - tales about what people are said to have done what.
Most of them also involve war and cultural struggles between different peoples, and are often written from within one particular geographical area. It is possible to read these stories and take out of them a wide range of morals, and therefore, to think that these indirect lessons have divine mandate.
The same occurs with all long texts. Take Tolkien's Lord of the Rings - it is very much like the Bible in styleand it is clear to see that you could spend your entire life analyzing it for morals. Many people who undertook such a task would come to different conclusions, just as with Holy Books.
The simple fact remains that the parts of the text that say "Here follows a moral rule, to be obeyed by all people for all time" are very infrequent indeed.
The Qur'an is much more frank than the Bible, but is still mostly about the retelling of events. The people in the book all have their own aims, which are relevant to the topic of the book and the life circumstances of that person. Most people's actions are simply not centered around any wish to provide universal instruction on behaviour - it's all about their problems at that time.
Using characters from within this book we would find many seemingly contradictory morals.
For example, for the side of Good, there is much killing to be done, yet part of the morals is that the bad guys kill people. People interpret the "real meanings" behind various stories in hugely varying ways, and volumes of books have been written on such interpretations based on political and moral undertones.
The answer is that this describes all large books written by Humans. Attempts to read them as places for moral instruction is itself the problem, and the cause of schism, violent disagreements and fundamentalism.
As time passes, the original cultural assumptions and cultural understanding of phrases and words will all change, making it impossible for many things to be understood by future audiences in the same way that the original authors meant them. The longer ago something was written, the less the context is clear to us today, and this opens the way for much culturally subjective opinion.The Basic Teachings of Buddhism Rissho Kosei-kai Published by RKINA (Rissho Kosei-kai International of North America) Interpretations based on the teachings of.
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I have some questions after listening to the lecture and the Q/A session. 1) I do not understand his response to . Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years. We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state.
Ethics in Indian and Tibetan Buddhism First published Tue Jun 22, ; substantive revision Wed Feb 1, Buddhism represents a vast and rich intellectual tradition which, until recently, received very little influence from Western philosophy. Ethics, also called moral philosophy, the discipline concerned with what is morally good and bad, right and wrong.
The term is also applied to any system or theory of moral values or principles..
How should we live? Shall we aim at happiness or at knowledge, virtue, or the creation of beautiful objects?If we choose happiness, will it be our own or the happiness of all? People with hearing loss can dream of a future when hearing aids might also serve as wireless loudspeakers, delivering clear, customized sound from inside their ears.